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讓600年故宮活起來——訪故宮博物院院長王旭東
2020-01-11 18:12  www.ypublico.com

  2020年是紫禁城建成600年暨故宫博物院成立95周年,这是故宫乃至整个中国文化界的大事。在“大庆”之际,故宫博物院院长王旭东接受了记者采访。

The year 2020 marks the 600th anniversary of the Forbidden City and the 95th anniversary of the establishment of the Palace Museum. On the occasion of \"Daqing \", Palace Museum President Wang Xudong gave an interview with reporters.

  王旭东:故宫博物院将推出六大系列活动,包括举办一系列学术研讨会、出版一系列研究成果、推出一系列精品展览、组织一系列公益活动、制作一系列弘扬故宫文化的影视作品、表彰一批有突出贡献的“故宫人”等。

Wang Xudong: The Palace Museum will launch six series of activities, including holding a series of academic seminars, publishing a series of research results, launching a series of fine exhibitions, organizing a series of public welfare activities, producing a series of film and television works to promote the Palace Museum culture, commending a group of \"Palace Museum people\" with outstanding contributions, etc.

  王旭东:今年的展览,题材涵盖古代建筑、专题书画、古代器物、中外文明等主题,力求为观众带来全新的观展体验。

Wang Xudong: this year's exhibition, the theme covers ancient architecture, special calligraphy and painting, ancient objects, Chinese and foreign civilization and other themes, strive to bring a new experience for the audience to view the exhibition.

  紫禁城是世界上保存最完整的古代木结构建筑群,它的建成,是国家意志的体现,但更是劳动人民智慧的结晶,是中国古代建筑理念的集大成者,是不同地域、不同民族工匠共同创造的结果。即将推出的“紫禁城建成600年展”,是以600年来时间轴线中的20余个关键年份为基点,通过紫禁城的营建、修缮、改造和保护等关键性事件,介绍600年来的城中变化,阐释紫禁城作为宫殿建筑技术与艺术完美结合的最高境界。

The Forbidden City is the most complete ancient wooden structure complex in the world, its completion is the embodiment of the national will, but it is also the crystallization of the wisdom of the working people, the collection of ancient Chinese architectural ideas, and the result of the joint creation of craftsmen of different regions and different nationalities. The upcoming 600-year-old Forbidden City exhibition, based on more than 20 key years in the 600-year time axis, introduces the changes in the city in the past 600 years through the construction, renovation, renovation and protection of the Forbidden City, and explains the highest state of the Forbidden City as a perfect combination of architectural technology and art.

  还有一个已经开幕的“须弥福寿展”,是西藏扎什伦布寺的文物第一次走出寺院,面向公众展出。展览重点体现了中华民族自古就是一个大家庭,西藏是祖国不可分割的一部分,是文化将我们紧紧联系在一起。文化从历史走来,任何分裂的图谋都是不可能实现的,因为文化的力量无比巨大。

There is also an opening of the \"Xumifu Shoushou exhibition \", which is the first time that the relics of the Zashrub Temple in Tibet have come out of the temple and are on display to the public. The exhibition highlights the fact that the Chinese nation has been a large family since ancient times, and that Tibet is an inseparable part of the motherland, and that culture has closely linked us together. Culture has come from history, and any attempt to divide it is impossible to realize, because the power of culture is enormous.

  书画是我们十分重要的藏品,所以还会推出“往昔世相——故宫博物院藏古代人物画展”,选取故宫博物院藏品佳作,展现人物画从东晋南北朝至明清时期的发展脉络。

Calligraphy and painting is a very important collection of us, so we will also launch \"the past-the palace museum tibetan ancient figures painting exhibition \", select the palace museum collection, showing the development of figure painting from the eastern and southern dynasties to the ming and qing dynasties.

  记者:据说“韩熙载夜宴图”将在此展亮相。它会是爆款展品吗?如同当年“清明上河图”“千里江山图”展出时那样的?

Reporter: It is said that \"Han Xi Zai night banquet map\" will be presented in this exhibition. Will it be a popular style exhibit? As when the \"Qingming on the river map \",\" Qianli Jiangshan map\" exhibition?

  王旭东:是的。虽然我们不排斥“爆款”,但我们不会刻意引爆。观众因“爆款”而长时间排队太辛苦,而且观展效果并不理想,更多地只不过是“打卡”。像书画作品,在现场因人多只能匆匆一看,没有时间和机会来细细体味其中之美。

Wang Xudong: Yes. Although we don't reject \"popular style \", we don't deliberately detonate it. Viewers queued too long because of the \"popular style \", and the results are not ideal, more than just\" punch \". Like calligraphy and painting works, in the scene because of the number of people can only rush to see, no time and opportunity to savor the beauty of it.

  文化如水,包容、滋养人心。我们希望观众能在故宫这样的文化殿堂中,静静地汲取文化的营养,达到一种润物细无声的效果。

Culture is like water, tolerant and nourishing the human heart. We hope that the audience in the Palace Museum such a cultural palace, quietly absorb the nutrition of culture, to achieve a moisturizing effect of silence.

  王旭东:办展览,不仅要让观众看到,而且要让观众看好。如今,故宫推出的展览一定是立足于学术研究基础上的,亮宝式、无主题的展览,在故宫不会再有。我们会认真梳理文物的艺术、历史、科学价值,再用适合普通观众的方式讲述文物背后的故事。

Wang Xudong: To hold an exhibition, not only let the audience see it, but also let the audience watch it. Nowadays, the exhibition launched by the Imperial Palace must be based on academic research, the bright treasure style, no theme exhibition, in the Palace Museum will no longer have. We will carefully comb the art, history, scientific value of cultural relics, and then use the way suitable for the ordinary audience to tell the story behind the cultural relics.

  我们的官网上有一个“名画馆”频道,里面的古代名画全是高清图,观众可以放大了,细细地看、慢慢地品。再比如,《清明上河图》的原作今年还在“休息”期间,不能展出,但它的数字作品《清明上河图版》正在全国巡展,看过的人都说效果非常好。

There is a \"famous painting hall\" channel on our official website, the ancient famous paintings are all high-definition pictures, viewers can enlarge, carefully look at, slowly products. For example, the original version of \"qingming river map\" is still not on display during the rest of the year, but its digital work \"qingming river map version\" is on tour throughout the country.

  我希望观众在参观故宫之前,先做一点功课,这样在参观时,会有更多的收获。其实,所有的文化旅游都应如此,过去那种“到此一游”的时代,到此为止吧。

I hope that the audience before visiting the Forbidden City, first do a little homework, so that in the visit, there will be more harvest. In fact, all cultural tourism should be so, in the past that kind of \"visit to this\" era, it is over.

  同时,我想向旅行社导游呼吁:讲解时少一点野史,多一点优秀传统文化的呈现。故宫是中华文化的会客厅,如果客人进来后听到的都是庸俗、低俗甚至恶俗的内容,这样的文化传播是失败的。

At the same time, I would like to appeal to the tour guide: explain less wild history, more excellent traditional culture. The Palace Museum is the living room of Chinese culture, if the guests come in to hear all the vulgar, vulgar and even vulgar content, such a cultural spread is a failure.

  记者:紫禁城已走过600年,故宫博物院也成立95年了。下一个600年,故宫的发展理念和规划会有什么变化吗?

Reporter: The Forbidden City has passed 600 years, and the Palace Museum has been established for 95 years. In the next 600 years, will the Palace Museum's development concept and planning change anything?

  这“四个故宫”,平安故宫是基础,学术故宫是核心,数字故宫是支撑,活力故宫是根本。它们既是四个独立的专项,分别开展工作;又是一个相互贯通、相互支持的工作体系,要统筹协调、打通彼此。

This \"four Forbidden City \", Ping an The Imperial Palace is the foundation, academic The Imperial Palace is the core, digital The Imperial Palace is the support, vitality The Imperial Palace is the fundamental. They are not only four separate projects to carry out their work separately, but also a work system that is interlinked and mutually supportive.

  记者:我得到一组数据,自1949年新中国成立以来,故宫博物院共接待观众亿人次;自1979年至今,共接待观众亿人次,占70年来观众总数的%;自2012年至今,接待观众亿人次,占70年来观众总数的%;仅2019年就突破1900万人次。参观故宫几乎成了一种“刚需”。故宫如何平衡巨大的观众需求与文物保护之间的关系?

Reporter: I got a set of data, since the founding of New China in 1949, the Palace Museum has received a total of 100 million spectators; since 1979, it has received a total of 100 million spectators, accounting for% of the total audience in 70 years; since 2012, it has received 100 million spectators, accounting for% of the total audience in 70 years; and since 2019 alone, it has exceeded 19 million. Visiting the Forbidden City has almost become a \"rigid demand \". How does the Forbidden City balance the huge audience needs with the protection of cultural relics?

  王旭东:文物工作,安全是第一位的。故宫博物院守护着有600年历史的宫殿古建筑群和186万件(套)文物。要做到“万无一失”,因为“一失万无”。因此“平安故宫”是我们工作的基础。

Wang Xudong: Cultural relics work, safety is the first. The Palace Museum guards the 600-year-old palace complex and 1.86 million artifacts. It is necessary to be \"foolproof\" because \"foolproof \". So \"Ping an Palace Museum\" is the basis of our work.

  随着工作的深入,保护的理念与方法也在变化和完善。从传统的文物修复、库房防震、消防安全等,到世界遗产监测,故宫的文物保护已进入抢救性保护向预防性保护过渡的阶段。

With the deepening of the work, the concept and methods of protection are also changing and perfecting. From the traditional restoration of cultural relics, storehouse shock prevention, fire safety and so on, to the World Heritage Monitoring, the protection of cultural relics in the Forbidden City has entered the stage of rescue protection to preventive protection.

  在保证平安的基础上,我们扩大开放面积、在线上办虚拟展示、不断推出文创产品,增加公益活动场次,力求满足公众的需求。

On the basis of ensuring peace, we expand the open area, do virtual display online, continuously launch creative products, increase the number of public events, and strive to meet the needs of the public.

  王旭东:“学术故宫”是我们工作的核心。故宫博物院自成立时,定位就是学术机构,直到今天,我们依然把学术作为核心任务之一。我们以“故宫学”为抓手,不仅依靠故宫博物院自己的研究人员,而且与更多的高校、科研院所,以及国际文物保护修复学会等国际著名学术机构合作,共同进行学术研究。

Wang Xudong:\" Academic Palace Museum \"is the core of our work. Since the Palace Museum was founded, the position is academic institutions, to this day, we still regard academic as one of the core tasks. We take \"Palace Museum Science\" as our grasp, not only rely on the Palace Museum's own researchers, but also cooperate with more universities, scientific research institutes, as well as international famous academic institutions such as the International Society for the Conservation and Restoration of Cultural relics to carry out academic research together.

  2019年,我们与北大、清华等高校,还有中科院等学术机构签订了战略合作协议,就是希望引进他们的学术研究资源;同时希望故宫的研究力量走出去,一方面传播故宫学术成果,一方面吸引更多的外部力量,尤其是年轻力量加入故宫学的研究队伍。

In 2019, we signed a strategic cooperation agreement with universities such as Peking University and Tsinghua University, as well as academic institutions such as the Chinese Academy of Sciences, in order to bring in their academic research resources.

  记者:1998年故宫博物院成立故宫资料信息中心,并在1999年开始了文物数字化工作。我清楚地记得,当年“数字化”在文博行业还算新生事物。20年过去了,数字化显然已成为文物连接历史与现代甚至未来的重要方式。

Reporter: The Palace Museum established the Palace Museum Information Center in 1998, and began the work of digitizing cultural relics in 1999. I remember clearly that \"digitization\" was a new thing in the literary industry. Twenty years later, digitization has clearly become an important way for cultural relics to connect history with modern times and even the future.

  王旭东:从1999年开始,故宫博物院始终重视“数字故宫”建设,并收获了丰硕成果,成为我们工作的支撑。未来,我们更要重点做好文物基础数据采集工作,加快所有的古建筑、院藏文物的数字化进程。此前我们已完成几十万件院藏文物的基础采集工作,2020年内将至少完成6万件。在逐渐形成技术标准规范之后,明年会加快推进数字化工作,最终建立“数字故宫”资源库,以支撑学术研究,为保护、科研、文创、社教等提供资源。以此数据库为依托,搭建数字网络保障平台,为安防、消防等提供预防性保护信息。

Wang Xudong: Since 1999, the Palace Museum has always attached importance to the construction of \"digital Palace Museum \", and has gained fruitful results and become the support of our work. In the future, we should focus on the collection of basic data on cultural relics, and speed up the digitization of all ancient buildings and cultural relics. We have already completed the basic collection of hundreds of thousands of cultural relics, and will complete at least 60,000 by 2020. After the gradual formation of technical standards and norms, next year will speed up the digital work, and finally establish a \"digital Forbidden City\" resource bank to support academic research, to provide resources for protection, scientific research, literary creation, social education and so on. Based on this database, a digital network security platform is built to provide preventive protection information for security and fire protection.

  王旭东:文物的脆弱性、不可再生性决定了它不能四处漫游,它的“活起来”,很大程度上就是利用数字技术。数字故宫提供的资源,可以让文物变成文创活起来、走出去。

Wang xudong: the fragility of cultural relics, non-renewable determines that it cannot roam around, its \"life \", to a large extent, is the use of digital technology. The resources provided by the digital Forbidden City can make cultural relics become literary creation and go out.

  故宫博物院的微博、微信有着很强的传播力。目前,微博有超过800万的粉丝,微信也有200多万粉丝。这不仅在国内,而且在国际上也是相当可观的。但我们不满足于此,我们今年还与其他机构合作拍摄了影视作品,比如,元旦起,《故宫贺岁》视频节目正式上线,让公众对故宫文化和年文化有更深入的理解。随后,还将有电视剧《故宫如梦》、电视纪录片《紫禁城》、文化季播节目《上新了·故宫》第三季、大型史诗剧《紫禁城》相继启动制作。总之,我们希望用更多方式,让更多人了解故宫文化,让故宫文化融入生活,惠及大众。(记者李韵)

The Palace Museum's Weibo, WeChat has a strong transmission power. At present, Weibo has more than 8 million fans, and WeChat has more than 2 million fans. This is considerable not only domestically but also internationally. But we are not satisfied with this, we also worked with other organizations this year to shoot film and television works, for example, from New Year's Day, the \"Palace Festival\" video program officially launched, so that the public have a deeper understanding of the Forbidden City culture and New Year culture. Then there will be the TV series \"The Forbidden City \", the TV documentary\" Forbidden City \", the third season of the cultural season program \"The Palace Museum \", and the big epic drama\" The Forbidden City \". In short, we hope to use more ways to let more people understand the Forbidden City culture, let the Forbidden City culture into life, benefit the public. (Reporter)